Strings are used for storing text/characters.
For example, "Hello World" is a string of characters.
Unlike many other programming languages, C does not have a String type
to easily create string variables. Instead, you must use the
char type and create
an array of characters to make a string in C:
Note that you have to use double quotes (
To output the string, you can use the
printf() function together with the format specifier
%s to tell C that we are now working with strings:
Since strings are actually arrays in C, you can access a string by referring to its index number inside square brackets
This example prints the first character (0) in greetings:
Note that we have to use the
%c format specifier to print a
To change the value of a specific character in a string, refer to the index number, and use single quotes:
greetings = 'J';
// Outputs Jello World! instead of Hello World!
Another Way Of Creating Strings
In the examples above, we used a "string literal" to create a string variable. This is the easiest way to create a string in C.
You should also note that you can create a string with a set of characters. This example will produce the same result as the example in the beginning of this page:
Why do we include the
\0 character at the end? This is
known as the "null terminating character", and must be included when creating
strings using this method. It tells C that this is the end of the string.
The difference between the two ways of creating strings, is that the first method is easier
to write, and you do not have to include the
\0 character, as C will do it for
note that the size of both arrays is the same: They both have 13 characters
(space also counts as a character by the way), including the
char greetings2 = "Hello World!";
printf("%lu\n", sizeof(greetings)); // Outputs 13
printf("%lu\n", sizeof(greetings2)); // Outputs 13