Tutorials References Exercises Videos Menu
Free Website Get Certified Pro

JS Tutorial

JS HOME JS Introduction JS Where To JS Output JS Statements JS Syntax JS Comments JS Variables JS Let JS Const JS Operators JS Arithmetic JS Assignment JS Precedence JS Data Types JS Functions JS Objects JS Events JS Strings JS String Methods JS String Search JS String Templates JS Numbers JS Number Methods JS Arrays JS Array Methods JS Array Sort JS Array Iteration JS Array Const JS Dates JS Date Formats JS Date Get Methods JS Date Set Methods JS Math JS Random JS Booleans JS Comparisons JS If Else JS Switch JS Loop For JS Loop For In JS Loop For Of JS Loop While JS Break JS Iterables JS Sets JS Maps JS Typeof JS Type Conversion JS Bitwise JS RegExp JS Errors JS Scope JS Hoisting JS Strict Mode JS this Keyword JS Arrow Function JS Classes JS Modules JS JSON JS Debugging JS Style Guide JS Best Practices JS Mistakes JS Performance JS Reserved Words

JS Versions

JS Versions JS 2009 (ES5) JS 2015 (ES6) JS 2016 JS 2017 JS 2018 JS 2019 JS 2020 JS IE / Edge JS History

JS Objects

Object Definitions Object Properties Object Methods Object Display Object Accessors Object Constructors Object Prototypes Object Iterables Object Sets Object Maps Object Reference

JS Functions

Function Definitions Function Parameters Function Invocation Function Call Function Apply Function Bind Function Closures

JS Classes

Class Intro Class Inheritance Class Static

JS Async

JS Callbacks JS Asynchronous JS Promises JS Async/Await

JS HTML DOM

DOM Intro DOM Methods DOM Document DOM Elements DOM HTML DOM Forms DOM CSS DOM Animations DOM Events DOM Event Listener DOM Navigation DOM Nodes DOM Collections DOM Node Lists

JS Browser BOM

JS Window JS Screen JS Location JS History JS Navigator JS Popup Alert JS Timing JS Cookies

JS Web APIs

Web API Intro Web Forms API Web History API Web Storage API Web Worker API Web Fetch API Web Geolocation API

JS AJAX

AJAX Intro AJAX XMLHttp AJAX Request AJAX Response AJAX XML File AJAX PHP AJAX ASP AJAX Database AJAX Applications AJAX Examples

JS JSON

JSON Intro JSON Syntax JSON vs XML JSON Data Types JSON Parse JSON Stringify JSON Objects JSON Arrays JSON Server JSON PHP JSON HTML JSON JSONP

JS vs jQuery

jQuery Selectors jQuery HTML jQuery CSS jQuery DOM

JS Graphics

JS Graphics JS Canvas JS Plotly JS Chart.js JS Google Chart JS D3.js

JS Examples

JS Examples JS HTML DOM JS HTML Input JS HTML Objects JS HTML Events JS Browser JS Editor JS Exercises JS Quiz JS Certificate

JS References

JavaScript Objects HTML DOM Objects


The JavaScript this Keyword


Example

const person = {
  firstName: "John",
  lastName : "Doe",
  id       : 5566,
  fullName : function() {
    return this.firstName + " " + this.lastName;
  }
};
Try it Yourself »

What is this?

In JavaScript, the this keyword refers to an object.

Which object depends on how this is being invoked (used or called).

The this keyword refers to different objects depending on how it is used:

In an object method, this refers to the object.
Alone, this refers to the global object.
In a function, this refers to the global object.
In a function, in strict mode, this is undefined.
In an event, this refers to the element that received the event.
Methods like call(), apply(), and bind() can refer this to any object.

Note

this is not a variable. It is a keyword. You cannot change the value of this.

this in a Method

When used in an object method, this refers to the object.

In the example on top of this page, this refers to the person object.

Because the fullName method is a method of the person object.

fullName : function() {
  return this.firstName + " " + this.lastName;
}
Try it Yourself »

this Alone

When used alone, this refers to the global object.

Because this is running in the global scope.

In a browser window the global object is [object Window]:

Example

let x = this;
Try it Yourself »

 In strict mode, when used alone, this also refers to the global object:

Example

"use strict";
let x = this;
Try it Yourself »

this in a Function (Default)

In a function, the global object is the default binding for this.

In a browser window the global object is [object Window]:

Example

function myFunction() {
  return this;
}
Try it Yourself »


this in a Function (Strict)

JavaScript strict mode does not allow default binding.

So, when used in a function, in strict mode, this is undefined.

Example

"use strict";
function myFunction() {
  return this;
}
Try it Yourself »

this in Event Handlers

In HTML event handlers, this refers to the HTML element that received the event:

Example

<button onclick="this.style.display='none'">
  Click to Remove Me!
</button>

Try it Yourself »


Object Method Binding

In these examples, this is the person object:

Example

const person = {
  firstName  : "John",
  lastName   : "Doe",
  id         : 5566,
  myFunction : function() {
    return this;
  }
};
Try it Yourself »

Example

const person = {
  firstName: "John",
  lastName : "Doe",
  id       : 5566,
  fullName : function() {
    return this.firstName + " " + this.lastName;
  }
};
Try it Yourself »

i.e. this.firstName is the firstName property of this (the person object).


Explicit Function Binding

The call() and apply() methods are predefined JavaScript methods.

They can both be used to call an object method with another object as argument.

The example below calls person1.fullName with person2 as an argument, this refers to person2, even if fullName is a method of person1:

Example

const person1 = {
  fullName: function() {
    return this.firstName + " " + this.lastName;
  }
}

const person2 = {
  firstName:"John",
  lastName: "Doe",
}

// Return "John Doe":
person1.fullName.call(person2);

Try it Yourself »


Function Borrowing

With the bind() method, an object can borrow a method from another object.

This example creates 2 objects (person and member).

The member object borrows the fullname method from the person object:

Example

const person = {
  firstName:"John",
  lastName: "Doe",
  fullName: function () {
    return this.firstName + " " + this.lastName;
  }
}

const member = {
  firstName:"Hege",
  lastName: "Nilsen",
}

let fullName = person.fullName.bind(member);
Try it Yourself »

This Precedence

To determine which object this refers to; use the following precedence of order.

PrecedenceObject
1bind()
2apply() and call()
3Object method
4Global scope

Is this in a function being called using bind()?

Is this in a function being called using apply()?

Is this in a function being called using call()?

Is this in an object function (method)?

Is this in a function in the global scope.