# R Data Set

## Data Set

A data set is a collection of data, often presented in a table.

There is a popular built-in data set in R called "mtcars" (Motor Trend Car Road Tests), which is retrieved from the 1974 Motor Trend US Magazine.

In the examples below (and for the next chapters), we will use the `mtcars` data set, for statistical purposes:

### Example

# Print the mtcars data set
mtcars

Result:

```                     mpg cyl  disp  hp drat    wt  qsec vs am gear carb
Mazda RX4           21.0   6 160.0 110 3.90 2.620 16.46  0  1    4    4
Mazda RX4 Wag       21.0   6 160.0 110 3.90 2.875 17.02  0  1    4    4
Datsun 710          22.8   4 108.0  93 3.85 2.320 18.61  1  1    4    1
Hornet 4 Drive      21.4   6 258.0 110 3.08 3.215 19.44  1  0    3    1
Hornet Sportabout   18.7   8 360.0 175 3.15 3.440 17.02  0  0    3    2
Valiant             18.1   6 225.0 105 2.76 3.460 20.22  1  0    3    1
Duster 360          14.3   8 360.0 245 3.21 3.570 15.84  0  0    3    4
Merc 240D           24.4   4 146.7  62 3.69 3.190 20.00  1  0    4    2
Merc 230            22.8   4 140.8  95 3.92 3.150 22.90  1  0    4    2
Merc 280            19.2   6 167.6 123 3.92 3.440 18.30  1  0    4    4
Merc 280C           17.8   6 167.6 123 3.92 3.440 18.90  1  0    4    4
Merc 450SE          16.4   8 275.8 180 3.07 4.070 17.40  0  0    3    3
Merc 450SL          17.3   8 275.8 180 3.07 3.730 17.60  0  0    3    3
Merc 450SLC         15.2   8 275.8 180 3.07 3.780 18.00  0  0    3    3
Cadillac Fleetwood  10.4   8 472.0 205 2.93 5.250 17.98  0  0    3    4
Lincoln Continental 10.4   8 460.0 215 3.00 5.424 17.82  0  0    3    4
Chrysler Imperial   14.7   8 440.0 230 3.23 5.345 17.42  0  0    3    4
Fiat 128            32.4   4  78.7  66 4.08 2.200 19.47  1  1    4    1
Honda Civic         30.4   4  75.7  52 4.93 1.615 18.52  1  1    4    2
Toyota Corolla      33.9   4  71.1  65 4.22 1.835 19.90  1  1    4    1
Toyota Corona       21.5   4 120.1  97 3.70 2.465 20.01  1  0    3    1
Dodge Challenger    15.5   8 318.0 150 2.76 3.520 16.87  0  0    3    2
AMC Javelin         15.2   8 304.0 150 3.15 3.435 17.30  0  0    3    2
Camaro Z28          13.3   8 350.0 245 3.73 3.840 15.41  0  0    3    4
Pontiac Firebird    19.2   8 400.0 175 3.08 3.845 17.05  0  0    3    2
Fiat X1-9           27.3   4  79.0  66 4.08 1.935 18.90  1  1    4    1
Porsche 914-2       26.0   4 120.3  91 4.43 2.140 16.70  0  1    5    2
Lotus Europa        30.4   4  95.1 113 3.77 1.513 16.90  1  1    5    2
Ford Pantera L      15.8   8 351.0 264 4.22 3.170 14.50  0  1    5    4
Ferrari Dino        19.7   6 145.0 175 3.62 2.770 15.50  0  1    5    6
Maserati Bora       15.0   8 301.0 335 3.54 3.570 14.60  0  1    5    8
Volvo 142E          21.4   4 121.0 109 4.11 2.780 18.60  1  1    4    2
```
Try it Yourself »

## Information About the Data Set

You can use the question mark (`?`) to get information about the `mtcars` data set:

### Example

# Use the question mark to get information about the data set

?mtcars

Result:

 mtcars {datasets} R Documentation

## Motor Trend Car Road Tests

### Description

The data was extracted from the 1974 Motor Trend US magazine, and comprises fuel consumption and 10 aspects of automobile design and performance for 32 automobiles (1973-74 models).

`mtcars`

### Format

A data frame with 32 observations on 11 (numeric) variables.

 [, 1] mpg Miles/(US) gallon [, 2] cyl Number of cylinders [, 3] disp Displacement (cu.in.) [, 4] hp Gross horsepower [, 5] drat Rear axle ratio [, 6] wt Weight (1000 lbs) [, 7] qsec 1/4 mile time [, 8] vs Engine (0 = V-shaped, 1 = straight) [, 9] am Transmission (0 = automatic, 1 = manual) [,10] gear Number of forward gears [,11] carb Number of carburetors

### Note

Henderson and Velleman (1981) comment in a footnote to Table 1: 'Hocking [original transcriber]'s noncrucial coding of the Mazda's rotary engine as a straight six-cylinder engine and the Porsche's flat engine as a V engine, as well as the inclusion of the diesel Mercedes 240D, have been retained to enable direct comparisons to be made with previous analyses.'

### Source

Henderson and Velleman (1981), Building multiple regression models interactively. Biometrics, 37, 391-411.

### Examples

```require(graphics)
pairs(mtcars, main = "mtcars data", gap = 1/4)
coplot(mpg ~ disp | as.factor(cyl), data = mtcars,
panel = panel.smooth, rows = 1)
## possibly more meaningful, e.g., for summary() or bivariate plots:
mtcars2 <- within(mtcars, {
vs <- factor(vs, labels = c("V", "S"))
am <- factor(am, labels = c("automatic", "manual"))
cyl  <- ordered(cyl)
gear <- ordered(gear)
carb <- ordered(carb)
})
summary(mtcars2)
```
Try it Yourself »

## Get Information

Use the `dim()` function to find the dimensions of the data set, and the `names()` function to view the names of the variables:

### Example

Data_Cars <- mtcars # create a variable of the mtcars data set for better organization

# Use dim() to find the dimension of the data set
dim(Data_Cars)

# Use names() to find the names of the variables from the data set
names(Data_Cars)

Result:

```[1] 32 11
[1] "mpg"  "cyl"  "disp" "hp"   "drat" "wt"   "qsec" "vs"   "am"   "gear"
[11] "carb"
```
Try it Yourself »

Use the `rownames()` function to get the name of each row in the first column, which is the name of each car:

### Example

Data_Cars <- mtcars

rownames(Data_Cars)

Result:

``` [1] "Mazda RX4"           "Mazda RX4 Wag"       "Datsun 710"
[4] "Hornet 4 Drive"      "Hornet Sportabout"   "Valiant"
[7] "Duster 360"          "Merc 240D"           "Merc 230"
[10] "Merc 280"            "Merc 280C"           "Merc 450SE"
[13] "Merc 450SL"          "Merc 450SLC"         "Cadillac Fleetwood"
[16] "Lincoln Continental" "Chrysler Imperial"   "Fiat 128"
[19] "Honda Civic"         "Toyota Corolla"      "Toyota Corona"
[22] "Dodge Challenger"    "AMC Javelin"         "Camaro Z28"
[25] "Pontiac Firebird"    "Fiat X1-9"           "Porsche 914-2"
[28] "Lotus Europa"        "Ford Pantera L"      "Ferrari Dino"
[31] "Maserati Bora"       "Volvo 142E"         ```
Try it Yourself »

From the examples above, we have found out that the data set has 32 observations (Mazda RX4, Mazda RX4 Wag, Datsun 710, etc) and 11 variables (mpg, cyl, disp, etc).

A variable is defined as something that can be measured or counted.

Here is a brief explanation of the variables from the mtcars data set:

Variable Name Description
mpg Miles/(US) Gallon
cyl Number of cylinders
disp Displacement
hp Gross horsepower
drat Rear axle ratio
wt Weight (1000 lbs)
qsec 1/4 mile time
vs Engine (0 = V-shaped, 1 = straight)
am Transmission (0 = automatic, 1 = manual)
gear Number of forward gears
carb Number of carburetors

## Print Variable Values

If you want to print all values that belong to a variable, access the data frame by using the `\$` sign, and the name of the variable (for example `cyl` (cylinders)):

### Example

Data_Cars <- mtcars

Data_Cars\$cyl

Result:

` [1] 6 6 4 6 8 6 8 4 4 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 4 4 4 8 6 8 4`
Try it Yourself »

## Sort Variable Values

To sort the values, use the `sort()` function:

### Example

Data_Cars <- mtcars

sort(Data_Cars\$cyl)

Result:

` [1] 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8`
Try it Yourself »

From the examples above, we see that most cars have 4 and 8 cylinders.

## Analyzing the Data

Now that we have some information about the data set, we can start to analyze it with some statistical numbers.

For example, we can use the `summary()` function to get a statistical summary of the data:

### Example

Data_Cars <- mtcars

summary(Data_Cars)
Try it Yourself »

Do not worry if you do not understand the output numbers. You will master them shortly.

The `summary()` function returns six statistical numbers for each variable:

• Min
• First quantile (percentile)
• Median
• Mean
• Third quantile (percentile)
• Max

We will cover all of them, along with other statistical numbers in the next chapters.